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What are the Symptoms of Low Testosterone, and How Can It Be Treated?

April 27, 2023 - Shelly Jones

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics. Produced primarily in the testicles, it also plays an important role in regulating muscle mass, bone density, and fat distribution.


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Important to men's health, testosterone affects libido, sperm production and overall energy levels. It also affects mood and cognitive function, making it important for both physical and mental well-being. Low testosterone, or hypogonadism, is a common condition in which the body produces insufficient levels of testosterone. It affects millions of men worldwide, with the prevalence increasing with age. Although more common in older men, low testosterone can also occur in younger men due to various factors such as injury, or illness.

What are some causes of Low Testosterone?

  • Age

    With age, testosterone levels naturally declines in men. This decrease typically begins around the age of 30 and continues with age.

  • Testicular injury or infection

    Injuries to the testicles, such as those caused by physical trauma or surgery, can interfere with testosterone production. Infections affecting the testicles can also cause low testosterone levels.

  • Genetic conditions

    Certain genetic disorders, such as Klinefelter syndrome (a condition where a male is born with an extra X chromosome) or Kallmann syndrome (a condition affecting the pituitary gland, which is responsible for stimulating testosterone production), can result in low testosterone levels.

  • Chronic illnesses

    Some chronic health conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, can negatively affect testosterone production. Additionally, hormonal imbalances, such as those caused by disorders of the pituitary or hypothalamic glands, can lead to low testosterone levels.

  • Medication side effects

    Certain medications can interfere with testosterone production or function. These may include opioids, corticosteroids, and some antidepressants. It is essential to discuss any potential side effects with a healthcare professional before starting or changing medications.

  • Lifestyle factors

    Poor lifestyle choices can contribute to low testosterone levels. These factors may include excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and stress. Making positive lifestyle changes, such as adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing stress, can help improve testosterone levels and overall health.

Symptoms of Low Testosterone

  • Reduced muscle mass and strength

    Low testosterone levels can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and overall strength. This is because testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of muscle tissue. Men with low testosterone may notice a decrease in their physical stamina and an increased difficulty in building or maintaining muscle.

  • Increased body fat

    Low testosterone can result in an increase in body fat, particularly in the abdominal area. This occurs because testosterone helps regulate fat distribution and metabolism. As testosterone levels drop, the body may struggle to maintain a healthy fat balance, leading to weight gain.

  • Low bone density

    Testosterone is essential for bone growth and maintenance. With low testosterone levels, men may experience a decline in bone density, increasing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis.

  • Reduced facial and body hair

    Testosterone influences hair growth on the face and body. Men with low testosterone may experience a decrease in facial and body hair or a slower rate of hair growth.

  • Gynecomastia (breast tissue growth)

    Low testosterone can lead to an imbalance between testosterone and estrogen levels in the body, causing the growth of breast tissue in men, a condition known as gynecomastia.

  • Erectile dysfunction

    Testosterone plays a role in achieving and maintaining erections. Men with low testosterone levels may experience difficulty with erections or reduced sexual performance.

  • Low sperm count

    Testosterone is vital for sperm production. Low testosterone levels can lead to a decrease in sperm count, which may contribute to fertility issues.

  • Decreased libido

    Low testosterone can cause a decrease in sexual desire or libido. This can manifest as a reduced interest in sex or difficulty becoming sexually aroused.

  • Fatigue

    Men with low testosterone may experience persistent fatigue or a lack of energy, even after getting adequate sleep. This can negatively impact daily activities and overall quality of life.

  • Depression and mood swings

    Low testosterone has been linked to mood disturbances, including depression and mood swings. This may be due to the hormone's influence on neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate mood and emotions.

  • Difficulty in concentrating

    Low testosterone levels can lead to problems with cognitive function, including difficulty concentrating or maintaining focus. This can affect work performance and daily tasks.

  • Sleep disturbances

    Testosterone plays a role in regulating sleep patterns. Men with low testosterone may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, or restless sleep. Poor sleep quality can exacerbate other symptoms of low testosterone, such as fatigue and difficulty concentrating.

How to treat Low Testosterone?

  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT)

    Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) aims to increase testosterone levels in men with low levels of the hormone. There are various forms of TRT, such as injections, gels, creams and patches.

    Testosterone Replacement Therapy offers several benefits, including improved energy, mood, libido, muscle mass, and bone density. However, it carries risks and side effects like blood clots, sleep apnea, acne, and elevated red blood cell count. TRT may also lead to reduced testosterone production, testicle shrinkage, and decreased sperm production.

  • Lifestyle Modifications

    • Taking a Healthy diet

      Eating a balanced diet rich in nutrients, vitamins, and minerals can help support overall health and hormone production. Foods high in healthy fats, lean proteins, and complex carbohydrates are particularly beneficial for maintaining optimal testosterone levels.

    • Doing Regular exercise

      Engaging in regular physical activity, particularly resistance training and high-intensity interval training, can help increase testosterone levels and improve overall health.

    • Reducing Stress

      Stress can contribute to low testosterone levels. Practicing stress management techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, and yoga, can help reduce stress and support healthy hormone levels.

    • Getting adequate Quality Sleep

      Ensuring sufficient, quality sleep is crucial for maintaining optimal testosterone levels. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night and maintain a consistent sleep schedule to support hormone production.

    • Limiting alcohol and drug use

      Excessive alcohol consumption and illicit drug use can negatively impact testosterone production. Reducing or eliminating these substances can help improve hormone levels and overall health.

  • Alternative Treatments

    • Herbal supplements

      Some herbal supplements, such as ashwagandha, fenugreek, and D-aspartic acid, have been shown to potentially boost testosterone levels. However, more research is needed to confirm their effectiveness and safety.

    • Acupuncture

      Although the evidence is limited, some studies suggest that acupuncture may help improve testosterone levels by promoting blood circulation and reducing stress.

    • Mind-body therapies

      Techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and relaxation techniques may help address the psychological factors that contribute to low testosterone levels, such as stress, anxiety, and depression.


Prioritizing hormonal health is crucial for men's overall well-being, as hormones like testosterone play a significant role in numerous physiological and psychological functions. By focusing on maintaining balanced hormone levels, men can experience various health benefits, such as improved mood, increased energy, better sexual function, and enhanced muscle and bone strength.


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